Manzanar Committee Calls on JACL to Apologize To Tule Lake Resisters

LOS ANGELES — On July 15, the Manzanar Committee, sponsor of the annual Manzanar Pilgrimage since 1969, along with the annual Manzanar At Dusk program and the Katari youth education project, announced their support of the proposed Resolution R-3: “Recognition of and Apology to the Tule Lake Resisters” that will be considered during the 2019 Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) Convention.

“We applaud the JACL for the role it has played over the years in defending the civil rights and interests of the Japanese American community,” said Manzanar Committee Co-Chair Bruce Embrey. “We are encouraged by the active and leading role JACL continues to play in opposing the illegal detention of refugees and other immigrants, especially children, on our southern border. But the time has come—it is actually long overdue—for the JACL to make amends and begin a community healing process by adopting the resolution, apologizing to the Tule Lake resisters and their families.”

Embrey noted the devastating impact of the infamous Loyalty Questionnaire that is at the root of this issue.

“The so-called Loyalty Questionnaire was one of the most ill-conceived and egregious expressions of the national chauvinism guiding the War Relocation Authority during World War II,” he noted. “The confusion, divisions and tensions created by the questionnaire resulted in more than 2,000 incarcerees at Manzanar being sent to Tule Lake. Indeed, Manzanar had the second highest number of incarcerees who refused to answer ‘yes’ to both questions 27 and 28 of any camp except Tule Lake.”

“Branded as ‘disloyal’ and sent to Tule Lake, many families were torn apart, with children left behind as fathers had to care for their parents, or they chose to stay united with their parents,” he added. “Families separated, many others forced to suffer additional hardships and oppression at Tule Lake—those were the real consequences of the Loyalty Questionnaire. In fact, the Loyalty Questionnaire served no real purpose and thousands of Japanese Americans were stigmatized, ostracized, and branded as ‘disloyal.’”

“It is a travesty of justice that the consequences of this continues haunt our community to this day. Though it is important to note, it is increasingly common, within our community and among scholars, to acknowledge that it took great courage to refuse to answer ‘yes’ or to qualify their responses to questions 27 and 28.”

Embrey stressed that the different forms of resistance to the unjust incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II have been accepted by many in the community.

“Overt resistance to the unconstitutional incarceration and to the oppressive conditions our families had to endure in camp, such as strikes, revolts, draft resisters at Heart Mountain, and clearly, the most well-known being the legal challenges by Fred Korematsu, Gordon Hirabayashi and Minoru Yasui, have all been recognized by our community as valid and heroic,” he noted. “We believe, and have maintained for many years, the refusal to answer questions 27 and 28 ranks as one of the most difficult and courageous acts of defiance to Executive Order 9066, on par with the many other forms of resistance that we acknowledge.”

Embrey urged the JACL to adopt the resolution and begin a much-needed healing process.

“We are both encouraged and pleased that the JACL has chosen to take on this most important and divisive issue,” he said. “Public apologies, such as the proposed Resolution, are powerful, and are important to our continued efforts to both heal from and document the true social impact Executive Order 9066 had on the Japanese American community.”

“The Manzanar Committee fully supports the proposed Resolution,” he added. “We call on the JACL to apologize to the remaining Tule Lake survivors and their families for its role in unjustly ostracizing and vilifying them over the past 76 years.”

The Manzanar Committee is dedicated to educating and raising public awareness about the incarceration and violation of civil rights of persons of Japanese ancestry during World War II and to the continuing struggle of all peoples when Constitutional rights are in danger. A non-profit organization that has sponsored the annual Manzanar Pilgrimage since 1969, along with other educational programs, the Manzanar Committee has also played a key role in the establishment and continued development of the Manzanar National Historic Site. For more information, check out our web site at, call us at (323) 662-5102, and e-mail us at You can also follow the Manzanar Commitee on Facebook, on Twitter at @manzanarcomm, on Instagram at @manzanarcommittee, on Pinterest and on YouTube.


LEAD PHOTO: A view down one of the streets of the Tule Lake Segregation Center, November 3, 1942. Photo: Francis Stewart, courtesy Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Creative Commons License The Manzanar Committee’s Official web site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. You may copy, distribute and/or transmit any story or audio content published on this site under the terms of this license, but only if proper attribution is indicated. The full name of the author and a link back to the original article on this site are required. Photographs, graphic images, and other content not specified are subject to additional restrictions. Additional information is available at: Manzanar Committee Official web site – Licensing and Copyright Information.

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